TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS

23 03 2013

During this time, realizing they must Test Of English as Foreign Language (TOEFL) is not enough to be used as parameters in assessing the capability and maturity of someone speaking English. Therefore, each of the different places and regions assessment means. Thus, we need a similar standard to measure the level of accuracy. One is through the Test Of English for International Communication (TOEIC) is an international standard.
Understanding “TOEIC” is shorthand for the Test of English for International Communication. The TOEIC test is a test of English language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEIC test scores indicate how well people can communicate in English with others in the global workplace. The test does not require specialized knowledge or vocabulary, this test only measures the kind of English used in everyday activities. The TOEIC test is a test of English proficiency are prominent in the world in the context of the global work environment. More than 4,000 companies around the world use the TOEIC test, and more than 2 million people signed up to take the test every year. ETS TOEIC has been held for 25 years all over the world. “In Indonesia, the TOEIC test was introduced in 1999,” said Julivan E. Rondonuwu of PT International Test Center, ETS representative in Indonesia.

History Educational Test Service ® ​​(ETS ®), an organization devoted himself to educational measurement and research in educational policy and psychometrics, designing and creating the TOEIC test in 1979 on request of Japanese business leaders. Over the years, the TOEIC test adopted by many other countries and is fast becoming the global standard for determining English language proficiency in the context of related work. The Chauncey Group International Ltd.., A subsidiary of ETS, develop and publish the TOEIC test. The Chauncey Group International is a company that specializes in testing professional licensing and certification exams skills and progress in the workplace. The Chauncey Group International headquarters is located in Princeton, New Jersey, USA; European offices (Chauncey Group Europe SA) in Paris, France. Test TOEIC TOEIC test format is multiple-choice test, paper and pencil for two hours consisting of 200 questions divided into two separately timed sections: • Part I: Listening Comprehension section consists of 100 questions and is divided into four parts. Participants heard a test recording of statements, questions, short conversations, and short description, and then answer questions based on segments to hear. Overall Listening Comprehension section takes approximately 45 minutes.
Part 1: Photographs
Part 2: Questions and Response Part
3: Short Conversations
Part 4: Short Talks 20 items (4 – choice) 30 items (3-choice) 30 items (4-choice) 20 items (4-choice) Ø Part II: Reading The reading consists of 100 questions presented in written format the test booklet. Participants read a variety of materials and answer questions based on their own pace according to literature itself. The entire passage requires 75 minutes.
Part 5: Incomplete Sentences 40 items (4-choice)
Part 6: Error Recognition 20 items (4-choice)
Part 7: Reading Comprehension 40 items (4-choice) Participants answered questions by marking one of the letters (A), (B), (C), (D) with a pencil on a separate answer.
Although the actual testing time is approximately two hours of extra time it takes participants to complete the biographical questions on the answer sheet, and respond to a brief questionnaire about their educational and work history. Tests TOEIC TOEIC test content designed to meet the needs of the world of work. Test questions were developed from samples of spoken and written language are collected from various countries around the world where English is used in the workplace. Test questions and the atmosphere contains many different situations, such as: General business – contracts, negotiations, marketing, sales, business planning, the conference. Manufacturing – plant management, assembly lines, pengandalian quality. Finance and budgeting – banking, investments, taxation, accounting, billing Corporate development – research, product development. Offices – board meetings, committees, letters, memoranda, telephone, fax and messages e-mail, office equipment and furniture, office procedures. Personnel – admission, hiring, retirement, salaries, promotions, job applications, advertising. Purchasing – procurement, ordering supplies, shipments, invoices Technical areas – electronics, technologies, specifications, pembeliaan and rental, electricity and gas services. Travel – trains, planes, taxis, buses, boats, ferries, tickets, schedules, station and airport announcements, car rentals, hotels, reservations, delays and delays. Dining out – business and informal lunches, banquets, receptions, restaurant reservations. Entertainment-cinema, theater, music, art, media-Health medical insurance, visiting doctors, dentists, clinics, hospitals. Although the language of the atmosphere-the atmosphere above explores the context of exam questions, participants are not required to know the vocabulary of business and technical specialty. TOEIC Test suitable for use in all environments where English is used by native speakers of other languages. Each candidate’s assessment of the TOEIC test using a pencil to mark the answers on the answer sheet. Score is determined by the number of questions answered correctly. The number of correct responses on the Listening Comprehension and Reading Sections (Listening and Reading Comprehension section) is converted to a number on a scale of 5 to 495. By adding the two sections you will get a total score based on a scale that ranges from 10 to 990. There is no reduction for wrong answers. TOEIC score starting from the number 400 to 990. There are six levels ie level 0/0 + Novice (score 10-250), Elementary Level 1 (score 255-400), level 1 + Intermediate (score 405-600), level 2 Basic Working Proficiency (score 605-780), level 2 + Advance Working Profiency (score 785-900) and level 3/3 + General Professional Proficiency (score 905-990). An unusual candidate must have a minimum TOEIC score of 400. While a prospective manager must have a minimum TOEIC score of 800. Someone who has a TOEIC score of 405-600, for example, in listening could understand explanations relating to the daily routine tasks, understand announcements during the trip and mengusai limited social conversation. In terms of speaking able to explain job responsibilities and academic backgrounds as well as a discussion about the project in the past and the future. Meanwhile, in terms of reading still need a dictionary to understand the technical documents. And last in the writing of people who have intermediate level was able to write a short memo, letter of complaint and fill out a simple application. Users TOEIC test takers and TOEIC test takers, including: · the people who use English in a variety of day-to-day working environment, such as commercial, hospitality, hospitals, restaurants, aircraft industry, international meetings, conventions, and sporting events · employees managerial, sales, technical and international business, trade, and industry in which the English language skills required · persons professional training will be conducted in English. · People who want to have a measure of English proficiency that is recognized internationally for a resume or curriculum vitae. Organizations TOEIC test has become standard for many organizations around the world who want to evaluate the English proficiency of prospective workers or permanent employees. TOEIC test uses the right organizations including: · Admission, promotion and placement of employees – Organizations may use the TOEIC test to set the score standards, or benchmarks, which are based on the level of English required to carry out certain responsibilities. The benchmarks are then used in making personnel decisions. · Technical Training – TOEIC test score can be used to determine whether a person has sufficient English proficiency to participate in or benefit from training conducted in English. · Assignments abroad – TOEIC test score can indicate whether an employee will be able to work and interact successfully if assigned to an English-speaking country. · Language Training – TOEIC test score can be used to identify employees who require English language training at a higher level, to set goals for their learning, and to check on their progress. Intensive English Program English Program managers found that the TOEIC test is a very good placement tool and a valuable gauge after training. Many Universities and institutions of higher education requires that students take the TOEIC test before graduation.

Sumber :

The TOEFL /ˈtfəl/ TOHfəl, formerly known as Test Of English as a Foreign Language, is a test of an individual’s ability to use and understand English in an academic setting designed and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS) and TOEFL is a registered trademark of ETS. It was developed to address the problem of ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at U.S. universities. It has become an admission requirement for non-native English speakers at many English-speaking colleges and universities. Additionally, institutions such as government agencies, licensing bodies, businesses, or scholarship programs may require this test. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then will no longer be officially reported.

History

In 1962, a national council made up of representatives of thirty government and private organizations was formed to address the problem of ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at U.S. universities. This council recommended the development and administration of the TOEFL exam for the 1963-1964 time frame.

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The test was originally developed at the Center for Applied Linguistics under the direction of Stanford University applied linguistics professor Dr. Charle A.Ferguson.

The TOEFL test was first administered in 1964 by the Modern Language Association financed by grants from the Ford Foundation and Danforth Foundation.

In 1965, The College Board and ETS jointly assumed responsibility for the continuation of the TOEFL testing program.

In 1973, a cooperative arrangement was made between ETS, The College Board, and the Graduate Record Examinations board of advisers to oversee and run the program. ETS was to administer the exam with the guidance of the TOEFL board.

Formats and contents

Internet-based Test

Since its introduction in late 2005, the TOEFL iBT format has progressively replaced both the computer-based tests (CBT) and paper-based tests (PBT), although paper-based testing is still used in select areas. The TOEFL iBT test has been introduced in phases, with the United StatesCanadaFranceGermany, and Italy in 2005 and the rest of the world in 2006, with test centers added regularly. The CBT was discontinued in September 2006 and these scores are no longer valid.

Although initially, the demand for test seats was higher than availability, and candidates had to wait for months, it is now possible to take the test within one to four weeks in most countries. The four-hour test consists of four sections, each measuring one of the basic language skills (while some tasks require integrating multiple skills) and all tasks focus on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. Note-taking is allowed during the TOEFL iBT test. The test cannot be taken more than once a week.

  1. Reading

The Reading section consists of 3–5 passages, each approximately 700 words in length and questions about the passages. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the TOEFL iBT test require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.

  1. Listening

The Listening section consists of six passages 3–5 minutes in length and questions about the passages. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. A conversation involves two speakers, a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. A lecture is a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture stimulus is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.

  1. Speaking

The Speaking section consists of six tasks: two independent tasks and four integrated tasks. In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network (OSN) and evaluated by three to six raters.

  1. Writing

The Writing section measures a test taker’s ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated task and one independent task. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss the same topic. The test-taker will then write a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explain how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states, explains, and supports their opinion on an issue, supporting their opinions or choices, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by four raters.

One of the sections of the test will include extra, uncounted material. Educational Testing Service includes extra material in order to pilot test questions for future test forms. When test-takers are given a longer section, they should give equal effort to all of the questions because they do not know which question will count and which will be considered extra. For example, if there are four reading passages instead of three, then three of those passages will count and one of the passages will not be counted. Any of the four passages could be the uncounted one.

Paper-based Test

The TOEFL® paper-based Test (PBT) is available in limited areas. Scores are valid for two years after the test date, and test takers can have their scores sent to institutions or agencies during that time.

  1. Listening (30 – 40 minutes)

The Listening section consists of 3 parts. The first one contains 30 questions about short conversations. The second part has 8 questions about longer conversations. The last part asks 12 questions about lectures or talks.

  1. Structure and Written Expression (25 minutes)

The Structure and Written Expression section has 15 exercises of completing sentences correctly and 25 exercises of identifying errors.

  1. Reading Comprehension (55 minutes)

The Reading Comprehension section has 50 questions about reading passages.

  1. Writing (30 minutes)

The Writing section is one essay with 250–300 words in average.

Test scores

TOEFL iBT Test

  • The TOEFL iBT test is scored on a scale of 0 to 120 points.
  • Each of the four sections (Reading, Listening, Speaking, and Writing) receives a scaled score from 0 to 30. The scaled scores from the four sections are added together to determine the total score.
  • Each speaking question is initially given a score of 0 to 4, and each writing question is initially given a score of 0 to 5. These scores are converted to scaled scores of 0 to 30.

Paper-based Test

  • The final PBT score ranges between 310 and 677 and is based on three subscores: Listening (31–68), Structure (31–68), and Reading (31–67). Unlike the CBT, the score of the Writing section (referred to as the Test of Written English, TWE) is not part of the final score; instead, it is reported separately on a scale of 0–6.
  • The score test takers receive on the Listening, Structure and Reading parts of the TOEFL test is not the percentage of correct answers. The score is converted to take into account the fact that some tests are more difficult than others. The converted scores correct these differences. Therefore, the converted score is a more accurate reflection of the ability than the correct answer score is.

Accepted TOEFL Scores

Most colleges use TOEFL scores as only one factor in their admission process. Each college or program within a college often has a minimum TOEFL score required. The minimum TOEFL iBT scores range from 61 (Bowling Green State University) to 100 (MIT, Columbia, Harvard). A sampling of required TOEFL admissions scores shows that a total TOEFL iBT score of 74.2 for undergraduate admissions and 82.6 for graduate admissions may be required.

ETS has released tables to convert between iBT, CBT and PBT scores.

TOEFL ITP Tests

TOEFL ITP tests are paper-based and use academic content to evaluate the English-language proficiency of nonnative English speakers. The tests use new and previously administered TOEFL test questions and are used for placement, progress, evaluation, exit testing and other situations. Unlike the TOEFL iBT test, TOEFL ITP tests are administered by the institution and should not replace the need for the TOEFL iBT test. There are two levels: Level 1 (intermediate to advanced) and Level 2 (high beginning to intermediate).TOEFL ITP scores are mapped to the CEFR and test takers are provided with a certificate of achievement.

TOEFL Junior Tests

ETS also offers the TOEFL Junior tests, a general assessment of middle school-level English-language proficiency, and a distinct product within the TOEFL family. The TOEFL Junior is intended for students ages 11–14. The tests are administered in two formats — TOEFL Junior Standard (paper-based) and TOEFL Junior Comprehensive (administered via computer). The TOEFL Junior Standard test has three sections: Reading Comprehension, Listening Comprehension and Language Form and Meaning. The TOEFL Junior Comprehensive test has four sections: Reading Comprehension, Listening Comprehension, Speaking and Writing. TOEFL Junior scores are mapped to the CEFR and test takers are provided with a certificate of achievement. TOEFL Junior is a trademark of ETS.

Sumber :

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TOEFL

IELTS is a test of the ability to speak in a United Kingdom recognised high international. IELTS is the owner of the IDP IELTS Australia, the British Council and the University of Cambridge ESOL DEPARTMENT Examinations. IELTS is recognised by many professional institutions, educational institutions, immigration agencies, and Government departments. IELTS many wear for people to be educated, professional development or intending to qualify for immigration.

IELTS is now accepted by all educational institutions in the UK, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States over more than 300 universities choose IELTS as an alternative instead of the TOEFL. IELTS is recognised by international institutions as well as the Australian Medical Council, the UK General Medical Council, the Veterinary Council of New Zealand and more. Now a lot of government departments has been declared compulsory for visa applicants in certain visa categories using the IELTS English language proficiency in order to know. These include the Department of Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIAC) in Australia, the New Zealand Immigration Service and the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, Canada.

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The IELTS test is a test center in the whole world, now there are already more than 450 centers in more than 120 countries. In Indonesia, IDP Education is one organization that takes care of the IELTS test. IDP leader in giving service in the IELTS test, which the IDP have IELTS test center/offsite test center in some cities in Indonesia, including Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Yogyakarta, Makassar, Medan, Palembang, Balikpapan and Manado. For more information please contact the nearest IDP Office.

Sumber :

http://www.indonesia.idp.com/indonesia_aus/student_services/tes-tes_yang_ditawarkan_idp/ielts.aspx

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One response

8 04 2013
Kate

There is a new cool app on AppStore to practice TOEIC test, basic functions are free:
https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/toeic-test-simulator/id594472943

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